Sal This is the author box. A short description about the author of this article. Could be their website link, what they like to read about and so on.

Post materialism science and what it means for us

2 min read

The equivalent French term expérience de mort imminente  was proposed by Victor Egger.

As a result of discussions in the 1890s among philosophers and psychologists concerning climbers’ stories of the panoramic life review during falls.[9][10] In 1892 a series of subjective observations by workers falling from scaffolds, war soldiers who suffered injuries, climbers who had fallen from heights or other individuals who had come close to death (near drownings, accidents) was reported by Albert Heim. This was also the first time the phenomenon was described as clinical syndrome.[11] In 1968 Celia Green published an analysis of 400 first-hand accounts of out-of-body experiences.[12] This represented the first attempt to provide a taxonomy of such experiences, viewed simply as anomalous perceptual experiences, or hallucinations. In 1969, Swiss-American psychiatrist and pioneer in near-death studies Elisabeth Kubler-Ross published her groundbreaking book On Death and Dying: What the dying have to teach doctors, nurses, clergy, and their own families. These experiences were also popularized by the work of psychiatrist Raymond Moody, who in 1975 coined the term “near-death experience” (NDE) as an umbrella term for the different elements (out of body experiences, the “panoramic life review,” the Light, the tunnel, or the border).[11] The term “near-death experience” had already been used by John C. Lilly in 1972.[13]

Characteristics

Common elements

Researchers have identified the common elements that define near-death experiences.[3] Bruce Greyson argues that the general features of the experience include impressions of being outside one’s physical body, visions of deceased relatives and religious figures, and transcendence of egotic and spatiotemporal boundaries.[14] Many common elements have been reported, although the person’s interpretation of these events often corresponds with the culturalphilosophical, or religious beliefs of the person experiencing it. For example, in the US, where 46% of the population believes in guardian angels, they will often be identified as angels or deceased loved ones (or will be unidentified), while Hindus will often identify them as messengers of the god of death.[15][16]

Common traits that have been reported by NDErs are as follows:

  • A sense/awareness of being dead.[3]
  • A sense of peacewell-being and painlessness. Positive emotions. A sense of removal from the world.[3]
  • An out-of-body experience. A perception of one’s body from an outside position, sometimes observing medical professionals performing resuscitation efforts.[3][17]
  • A “tunnel experience” or entering a darkness. A sense of moving up, or through, a passageway or staircase.[3][17]
  • A rapid movement toward and/or sudden immersion in a powerful light (or “Being of Light”) which communicates with the person.[18]
  • An intense feeling of unconditional love and acceptance.[19]
  • Encountering “Beings of Light”, “Beings dressed in white”, or similar. Also, the possibility of being reunited with deceased loved ones.[3][17]
  • Receiving a life review, commonly referred to as “seeing one’s life flash before one’s eyes”.[3]
  • Approaching a border or a decision by oneself or others to return to one’s body, often accompanied by a reluctance to return.[3][17]
  • Suddenly finding oneself back inside one’s body.[20]
  • Connection to the cultural beliefs held by the individual, which seem to dictate some of the phenomena experienced in the NDE and particularly the later interpretation thereof.[15][page needed]

Stages

Kenneth Ring (1980) subdivided the NDE on a five-stage continuum. The subdivisions were:[21]

  1. Peace
  2. Body separation
  3. Entering darkness
  4. Seeing the light
  5. Entering the light

Charlotte Martial, a neuropsychologist from the University of Liège and University Hospital of Liège who led a team that investigated 154 NDE cases, concluded that there is not a fixed sequence of events.[22]

Clinical circumstances

Kenneth Ring argues that attempted suicides do not lead more often to unpleasant NDEs than unintended near-death situations.[23]

After-effects

NDEs are associated with changes in personality and outlook on life.[3] Ring has identified a consistent set of value and belief changes associated with people who have had a near-death experience. Among these changes, he found a greater appreciation for life, higher self-esteem, greater compassion for others, less concern for acquiring material wealth, a heightened sense of purpose and self-understanding, desire to learn, elevated spirituality, greater ecological sensitivity and planetary concern, and a feeling of being more intuitive.[3]However, not all after-effects are beneficial[24] and Greyson describes circumstances where changes in attitudes and behavior can lead to psychosocial and psychospiritual problems.[25]

Historical reports, incidence and prevalence

NDEs have been recorded since ancient times.[26] The oldest known medical report of near-death experiences was written by Pierre-Jean du Monchaux, an 18th century French military doctor who described such a case in his book “Anecdotes de Médecine.”[27] In the 19th century a few studies moved beyond individual cases – one privately done by the Mormons and one in Switzerland. Up to 2005, 95% of world cultures are known to have made some mention of NDEs.[26]

A number of more contemporary sources report incidences of near death experiences of:

  • 17% amongst critically ill patients, in nine prospective studies from 4 different countries.[28]
  • 10-20% of people who have come close to death.[11]
Sal This is the author box. A short description about the author of this article. Could be their website link, what they like to read about and so on.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

  Never miss a story from us, get weekly updates in your inbox.